We rooked a current database, situated because of the all of our browse group, towards the drink and food consumption to own 984 grownups

We rooked a current database, situated because of the all of our browse group, towards the drink and food consumption to own 984 grownups

2. Material and techniques

Data were collected using the WBQ Aserbajdsjan kvinner pГҐ jakt etter ektemenn tool from in the area of Athens, Greece from 473 individuals aged 16–86 (42 ± 18 years) (221 males) in summer and from 511 individuals aged 16–86 (38 ± 20 years) (245 males) in winter, stratified by age and sex according to the Hellenic Statistical Authority . All volunteers were informed on the objectives of the study and the procedures involved and signed an informed consent. The retrieved data were confidential, and the study followed the ethical considerations provided by The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). The WBQ incorporates a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire validated to record energy intake against three-day diaries (p < 0.001)>

In particular, the WBQ will bring: (A) data to your reputation of one’s fellow member; (B) recording regarding application on the time of the prior times out of good and fluid dinner, liquid or beverages out of a partial-decimal restaurants volume survey (FFQ) of 58 dishes validated to own estimating opportunity intake in addition to most sugar and you will honey that’s added to products; and you will (C) quote off exercise employing the fresh new Globally Physical exercise Survey (IPAQ) , and that ideas duration of physical exercise from the about three hobby profile (severe, reasonable, light take action) otherwise inactive standards. The fresh new IPAQ could have been validated before due to the fact a mix-federal device for tape physical exercise [20,21,22] and also to guess opportunity expenditure.

The ability and you can h2o blogs of recorded delicacies and you will products are assessed utilising the Diet Studies Along with (Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc., Belmont, Ca, USA), and therefore uses structure study throughout the USDA Federal Nutrient Database and you can picked Greek dishes (we.e., mousakas, pastitsio, Greek natural yogurt, lentiles kidney beans soup, numerous Greek pies, souvlaki, overflowing tomatoes) . Predicated on total times intake and energy expense, energy balance try analyzed also.

Contained in this studies, “drinks” refers to good fresh fruit fruit juice otherwise packaged liquid 100% rather than glucose stuff, sugar-sugary beverages (SSDs) (fresh fruit nectar with glucose, soft drinks with glucose and energy/isotonic drinks), low-calorie sodas, beverage and you will organic infusions, milk products (all kinds of milk, delicious chocolate milk products and you can cocoa take in), milkshake and sherbets, coffee-and coffee beverages, and you can alcoholic drinks (alcohol, wine and all of variety of alcoholic drinks). “Take in time intake (DEI)” means times intake out-of drinks “complete energy consumption (TEI)” to help you energy intake off all source and you will “time consumption from dinners” so you’re able to times intake of solid and water food (age.g., soups). The fresh new sum out of drinks groups to overall time consumption (studies out of Malisova mais aussi al. 2013), exhibited since full intake of water (TWI), we.e., h2o out-of beverages, liquid, good and liquid dishes so that as drink water intake (DWI), i.e., liquids regarding drinks and liquids.

step 3. Mathematical Analysis

Results are displayed once the indicate ± sd towards typically marketed variables and average (P25–P75) into skewed of these. Normality try looked at utilising the probability–likelihood patch (P–P patch) and you can histograms. Differences when considering men concerning your total times intake, time off drinks, energy off foods, time costs, time balance, drinking habits, liquids out of h2o and you may products, drinking water of drinks, liquid regarding h2o, liquids away from meals, liquids losses and you will liquids harmony were assessed to the independent test t-try to your usually marketed variables as well as the Mann-Whittney You-sample towards the skewed of them. Furthermore, differences when considering new four quartiles of energy away from beverages was in fact analyzed into that-ways ANOVA F-decide to try to your normally distributed details in addition to Kruskal-Wallis H Try into skewed of those. Advantages height was place during the 5%. Correlations between your contribution out-of beverages so you’re able to drinking habits when you look at the relation so you can times inside the cold weather and summer was in fact checked by the Pearson’s or Spearman’s correlation coefficients to possess typically delivered otherwise skewed parameters. The statistical analyses did playing with PASW Analytics 18 (SPSS Inc, Chi town, IL, USA).

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